The Birmingham campaign, or Birmingham movement, was a movement organized in early 1963 by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to bring attention to the integration efforts of African Americans in Birmingham, Alabama.Led by Martin Luther King Jr., James Bevel, Fred Shuttlesworth and others, the campaign of nonviolent direct action culminated in widely publicized confrontations between young black students and white civic authorities, and eventually led the municipal government to change the city's discrimination laws.High school students are struck by a high-pressure water jet from a fire hose during a peaceful walk in Birmingham, Alabama in 1963.As photographed by Charles Moore, images like this one, printed in Life, inspired international support for the demonstrators.Birmingham, around 125 miles (200 kilometers) from London, is often described as England's second city.
It was one of six raids across London and Birmingham in the aftermath of the shocking attack in Westminster earlier in the day.
He then trained and directed high school, college, and elementary school students in nonviolence, and asked them to participate in the demonstrations by taking a peaceful walk fifty at a time from the 16th Street Baptist Church to City Hall in order to talk to the mayor about segregation.
This resulted in over a thousand arrests, and, as the jails and holding areas filled with arrested students, the Birmingham Police Department, led by Eugene "Bull" Connor, used high-pressure water hoses and police attack dogs on the children and adult bystanders.
A 10,400-year-old settlement – the oldest within the city – was excavated in the Digbeth area in 2009, with evidence that hunter-gatherers with basic flint tools had cleared an area of forest by burning.
Flint tools from the later mesolithic period – between 80 years ago – have been found near streams in the city, though these probably represent little more than hunting parties or overnight camps.